Effect of obesity and starvation on thyroid hormone, growth hormone, and cortisol secretion

      Adequate nutrition is necessary for human growth and development. Obesity and malnutrition, two distinct disorders that occur when there is a mismatch between energy intake and energy consumption, can lead to serious disease [
      • Calle E
      • Thun M
      • Petrelli J
      • Rodriguez C
      • Heath Jr., C.W
      Body mass index and mortality in a prospective cohort of US adults.
      ,
      • Kopelman P
      Obesity as a medical problem.
      ]. There has been a shift in recent years in the epidemiology of diseases that affect nutrition. Although malnutrition is still present in the underdeveloped world, obesity, a condition associated with excessive energy intake, has become a major public health concern in the United States. It is estimated that 97.1 million adults (54.9% of the population) are overweight. Nearly one fourth of adults or 39.8 million individuals are also obese [
      • Mokdad A.H
      • Bowman B.A
      • Ford E.S
      • Vinicor F
      • Marks J
      • Koplan J.P
      The continuing epidemics of obesity and diabetes in the United States.
      ].
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