Advertisement

Evaluation and Management of Lipids and Lipoproteins in Children and Adolescents

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribers receive full online access to your subscription and archive of back issues up to and including 2002.

      Content published before 2002 is available via pay-per-view purchase only.

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Frerichs R.R.
        • Srinivasan S.R.
        • Webber L.S.
        • et al.
        Serum lipids and lipoproteins at birth in a biracial population: the Bogalusa heart study.
        Pediatr Res. 1978; 12: 858-863
        • Freedman D.S.
        • Srinivasan S.R.
        • Cresanta J.L.
        • et al.
        Cardiovascular risk factors from birth to 7 years of age: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Serum lipids and lipoproteins.
        Pediatrics. 1987; 80: 789-796
        • Webber L.S.
        • Srinivasan S.R.
        • Wattigney W.A.
        • et al.
        Tracking of serum lipids and lipoproteins from childhood to adulthood. The Bogalusa Heart Study.
        Am J Epidemiol. 1991; 133: 884-899
        • Berenson G.S.
        • Srinivasan S.R.
        • Bao W.
        • et al.
        Association between multiple cardiovascular risk factors and atherosclerosis in children and young adults. The Bogalusa Heart Study.
        N Engl J Med. 1998; 338: 1650-1656
        • Lauer R.M.
        • Lee J.
        • Clarke W.R.
        Factors affecting the relationship between childhood and adult cholesterol levels: the Muscatine Study.
        Pediatrics. 1988; 82: 309-318
        • American Academy of Pediatrics
        National cholesterol education program: report of the expert panel on blood cholesterol levels in children and adolescents.
        Pediatrics. 1992; 89: 525-584
        • Ritchie S.K.
        • Murphy E.C.
        • Ice C.
        • et al.
        Universal versus targeted blood cholesterol screening among youth: the CARDIAC project.
        Pediatrics. 2010; 126: 260-265
        • Rodenburg J.
        • Vissers M.N.
        • Wiegman A.
        • et al.
        Statin treatment in children with familial hypercholesterolemia: the younger, the better.
        Circulation. 2007; 116: 664-668
        • Hickman T.B.
        • Briefel R.R.
        • Carroll M.D.
        • et al.
        Distributions and trends of serum lipid levels among United States children and adolescents ages 4-19 years: data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
        Prev Med. 1998; 27: 879-890
        • Cook S.
        • Kavey R.E.
        Dyslipidemia and pediatric obesity.
        Pediatr Clin North Am. 2011; 58 (ix): 1363-1373
        • Epstein L.H.
        • Kuller L.H.
        • Wing R.R.
        • et al.
        The effect of weight control on lipid changes in obese children.
        Am J Dis Child. 1989; 143: 454-457
        • Owen C.G.
        • Whincup P.H.
        • Odoki K.
        • et al.
        Infant feeding and blood cholesterol: a study in adolescents and a systematic review.
        Pediatrics. 2002; 110: 597-608
        • Simell O.
        • Niinikoski H.
        • Ronnemaa T.
        • et al.
        Special turku coronary risk factor intervention project for babies (STRIP).
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2000; 72: 1316S-1331S
        • Kaitosaari T.
        • Ronnemaa T.
        • Raitakari O.
        • et al.
        Effect of 7-year infancy-onset dietary intervention on serum lipoproteins and lipoprotein subclasses in healthy children in the prospective, randomized Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project for Children (STRIP) study.
        Circulation. 2003; 108: 672-677
        • Yu-Poth S.
        • Zhao G.
        • Etherton T.
        • et al.
        Effects of the national cholesterol education program's step I and step II dietary intervention programs on cardiovascular disease risk factors: a meta-analysis.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 1999; 69: 632-646
        • Lauer R.M.
        • Obarzanek E.
        • Hunsberger S.A.
        • et al.
        Efficacy and safety of lowering dietary intake of total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol in children with elevated LDL cholesterol: the Dietary Intervention Study in Children.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2000; 72: 1332S-1342S
        • Trautwein E.A.
        • Vermeer M.A.
        • Hiemstra H.
        • et al.
        LDL-cholesterol lowering of plant sterols and stanols-which factors influence their efficacy?.
        Nutrients. 2018; 10: 1262
        • Tammi A.
        • Ronnemaa T.
        • Gylling H.
        • et al.
        Plant stanol ester margarine lowers serum total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations of healthy children: the STRIP project. Special Turku Coronary Risk Factors Intervention Project.
        J Pediatr. 2000; 136: 503-510
        • Mantovani L.M.
        • Pugliese C.
        Phytosterol supplementation in the treatment of dyslipidemia in children and adolescents: a systematic review.
        Rev Paul Pediatr. 2020; 39: e2019389
        • de Jongh S.
        • Vissers M.N.
        • Rol P.
        • et al.
        Plant sterols lower LDL cholesterol without improving endothelial function in prepubertal children with familial hypercholesterolaemia.
        J Inherit Metab Dis. 2003; 26: 343-351
        • Guardamagna O.
        • Abello F.
        • Baracco V.
        • et al.
        Primary hyperlipidemias in children: effect of plant sterol supplementation on plasma lipids and markers of cholesterol synthesis and absorption.
        Acta Diabetol. 2011; 48: 127-133
        • Davidson M.H.
        • Dugan L.D.
        • Burns J.H.
        • et al.
        A psyllium-enriched cereal for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia in children: a controlled, double-blind, crossover study.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 1996; 63: 96-102
        • Dennison B.A.
        • Levine D.M.
        Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-period crossover clinical trial of psyllium fiber in children with hypercholesterolemia.
        J Pediatr. 1993; 123: 24-29
        • Gold K.
        • Wong N.
        • Tong A.
        • et al.
        Serum apolipoprotein and lipid profile effects of an oat-bran-supplemented, low-fat diet in children with elevated serum cholesterol.
        Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1991; 623: 429-431
        • Kwiterovich Jr., P.O.
        The role of fiber in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia in children and adolescents.
        Pediatrics. 1995; 96: 1005-1009
        • Belay B.
        • Belamarich P.F.
        • Tom-Revzon C.
        The use of statins in pediatrics: knowledge base, limitations, and future directions.
        Pediatrics. 2007; 119: 370-380
        • Collins R.
        • Reith C.
        • Emberson J.
        • et al.
        Interpretation of the evidence for the efficacy and safety of statin therapy.
        Lancet. 2016; 388: 2532-2561
        • Wiegman A.
        • Gidding S.
        • Watts G.
        • et al.
        European atherosclerosis society consensus panel. Familial hypercholesterolaemia in children and adolescents: gaining decades of life by optimizing detection and treatment.
        Eur Heart J. 2015; 36: 2425-2437
        • Luirink I.K.
        • Wiegman A.
        • Kusters D.M.
        • et al.
        20-Year follow-up of statins in children with familial hypercholesterolemia.
        N Engl J Med. 2019; 381: 1547-1556
        • Avis H.J.
        • Vissers M.N.
        • Stein E.A.
        • et al.
        A systematic review and meta-analysis of statin therapy in children with familial hypercholesterolemia.
        Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2007; 27: 1803-1810
        • Saskia de Jongh M.
        • Lilien M.R.
        • Jos op’t Roodt M.
        • et al.
        Early Statin therapy restores endothelial function in children with familial hypercholesterolemia.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002; 40: 2117-2121
        • Wiegman A.
        • de Groot E.
        • Hutten B.A.
        • et al.
        Arterial intima-media thickness in children heterozygous for familial hypercholesterolaemia.
        Lancet. 2004; 363: 369-370
        • Wiegman A.
        Lipid screening, action, and follow-up in children and adolescents.
        Curr Cardiol Rep. 2018; 20: 80
        • Eiland L.S.
        • Luttrell P.K.
        Use of statins for dyslipidemia in the pediatric population.
        J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther. 2010; 15: 160-172
        • Wiegman A.
        • Hutten B.A.
        • de Groot E.
        • et al.
        Efficacy and safety of statin therapy in children with familial hypercholesterolemia: a randomized controlled trial.
        JAMA. 2004; 292: 331-337
        • Braamskamp M.J.
        • Stefanutti C.
        • Langslet G.
        • et al.
        Efficacy and safety of pitavastatin in children and adolescents at high future cardiovascular risk.
        J Pediatr. 2015; 167: 338-343 e335
        • Hedman M.
        • Matikainen T.
        • Fohr A.
        • et al.
        Efficacy and safety of pravastatin in children and adolescents with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia: a prospective clinical follow-up study.
        J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005; 90: 1942-1952
        • Knipscheer H.C.
        • Boelen C.C.
        • Kastelein J.J.
        • et al.
        Short-term efficacy and safety of pravastatin in 72 children with familial hypercholesterolemia.
        Pediatr Res. 1996; 39: 867-871
        • Avis H.J.
        • Hutten B.A.
        • Gagne C.
        • et al.
        Efficacy and safety of rosuvastatin therapy for children with familial hypercholesterolemia.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010; 55: 1121-1126
        • Langslet G.
        • Breazna A.
        • Drogari E.
        A 3-year study of atorvastatin in children and adolescents with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.
        J Clin Lipidol. 2016; 10: 1153-1162 e3
        • McCrindle B.W.
        • Ose L.
        • Marais A.D.
        Efficacy and safety of atorvastatin in children and adolescents with familial hypercholesterolemia or severe hyperlipidemia: a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.
        J Pediatr. 2003; 143: 74-80
        • van der Graaf A.
        • Nierman M.C.
        • Firth J.C.
        • et al.
        Efficacy and safety of fluvastatin in children and adolescents with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia.
        Acta Paediatr. 2006; 95: 1461-1466
        • Stein E.A.
        • Illingworth D.R.
        • Kwiterovich Jr., P.O.
        • et al.
        Efficacy and safety of lovastatin in adolescent males with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia: a randomized controlled trial.
        JAMA. 1999; 281: 137-144
        • Clauss S.B.
        • Holmes K.W.
        • Hopkins P.
        • et al.
        Efficacy and safety of lovastatin therapy in adolescent girls with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.
        Pediatrics. 2005; 116: 682-688
        • Lambert M.
        • Lupien P.J.
        • Gagne C.
        • et al.
        Treatment of familial hypercholesterolemia in children and adolescents: effect of lovastatin. Canadian Lovastatin in Children Study Group.
        Pediatrics. 1996; 97: 619-628
        • Dirisamer A.
        • Hachemian N.
        • Bucek R.A.
        • et al.
        The effect of low-dose simvastatin in children with familial hypercholesterolaemia: a 1-year observation.
        Eur J Pediatr. 2003; 162: 421-425
        • de Jongh S.
        • Ose L.
        • Szamosi T.
        • et al.
        Efficacy and safety of statin therapy in children with familial hypercholesterolemia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with simvastatin.
        Circulation. 2002; 106: 2231-2237
      1. Expert panel on integrated guidelines for cardiovascular health and risk reduction in children and adolescents: summary report.
        Pediatrics. 2011; 128: S213-S256
        • Newman C.B.
        • Preiss D.
        • Tobert J.A.
        • et al.
        Statin safety and associated adverse events: a scientific statement from the american heart association.
        Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2019; 39: e38-e81
        • Lozano P.
        • Henrikson N.B.
        • Dunn J.
        • et al.
        Lipid screening in childhood and adolescence for detection of familial hypercholesterolemia: evidence report and systematic review for the us preventive services task force.
        JAMA. 2016; 316: 645-655
      2. https://www.fda.gov/media/150774/download. 2021.

        • Augustine A.H.
        • Lowenstein L.M.
        • Harris W.S.
        • et al.
        Treatment with omega-3 fatty acid ethyl-ester alters fatty acid composition of lipoproteins in overweight or obese adults with insulin resistance.
        Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2014; 90: 69-75
        • Tonstad S.
        • Sivertsen M.
        • Aksnes L.
        • et al.
        Low dose colestipol in adolescents with familial hypercholesterolaemia.
        Arch Dis Child. 1996; 74: 157-160
        • Tonstad S.
        • Knudtzon J.
        • Sivertsen M.
        • et al.
        Efficacy and safety of cholestyramine therapy in peripubertal and prepubertal children with familial hypercholesterolemia.
        J Pediatr. 1996; 129: 42-49
        • Stein E.A.
        • Marais A.D.
        • Szamosi T.
        • et al.
        Colesevelam hydrochloride: efficacy and safety in pediatric subjects with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.
        J Pediatr. 2010; 156: 231-236
        • Garg A.
        Dyslipidemias : pathophysiology, evaluation and management.
        Humana Press, 2015
        • Clauss S.
        • Wai K.M.
        • Kavey R.E.
        • et al.
        Ezetimibe treatment of pediatric patients with hypercholesterolemia.
        J Pediatr. 2009; 154: 869-872
        • Yeste D.
        • Chacon P.
        • Clemente M.
        • et al.
        Ezetimibe as monotherapy in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia in children and adolescents.
        J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2009; 22: 487-492
        • van der Graaf A.
        • Cuffie-Jackson C.
        • Vissers M.N.
        • et al.
        Efficacy and safety of coadministration of ezetimibe and simvastatin in adolescents with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008; 52: 1421-1429
        • Colletti R.B.
        • Neufeld E.J.
        • Roff N.K.
        • et al.
        Niacin treatment of hypercholesterolemia in children.
        Pediatrics. 1993; 92: 78-82
        • Anderson T.J.
        • Boden W.E.
        • Desvigne-Nickens P.
        • et al.
        Safety profile of extended-release niacin in the AIM-HIGH trial.
        N Engl J Med. 2014; 371: 288-290
        • Landray M.J.
        • Haynes R.
        • et al.
        • HPS 2-THRIVE Collaborative Group
        Effects of extended-release niacin with laropiprant in high-risk patients.
        N Engl J Med. 2014; 371: 203-212
        • Sabatine M.S.
        • Giugliano R.P.
        • Keech A.C.
        • et al.
        Evolocumab and clinical outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease.
        N Engl J Med. 2017; 376: 1713-1722
        • Santos R.D.
        • Ruzza A.
        • Hovingh G.K.
        • et al.
        Evolocumab in pediatric heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.
        N Engl J Med. 2020; 383: 1317-1327
        • Valaiyapathi B.
        • Sunil B.
        • Ashraf A.P.
        Approach to hypertriglyceridemia in the pediatric population.
        Pediatr Rev. 2017; 38: 424-434
        • Shearer G.C.
        • Savinova O.V.
        • Harris W.S.
        Fish oil -- how does it reduce plasma triglycerides?.
        Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012; 1821: 843-851
        • Goldberg R.B.
        • Sabharwal A.K.
        Fish oil in the treatment of dyslipidemia.
        Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2008; 15: 167-174
        • Brinton E.A.
        • Ballantyne C.M.
        • Guyton J.R.
        • et al.
        Lipid Effects of icosapent ethyl in women with diabetes mellitus and persistent high triglycerides on statin treatment: ANCHOR trial subanalysis.
        J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2018; 27: 1170-1176
        • Yang Z.H.
        • Amar M.
        • Sampson M.
        • et al.
        Comparison of omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid versus docosahexaenoic acid-rich fish oil supplementation on plasma lipids and lipoproteins in normolipidemic adults.
        Nutrients. 2020; 12: 749
        • Jacobson T.A.
        • Glickstein S.B.
        • Rowe J.D.
        • et al.
        Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and other lipids: a review.
        J Clin Lipidol. 2012; 6: 5-18
        • Engler M.M.
        • Engler M.B.
        • Malloy M.J.
        • et al.
        Effect of docosahexaenoic acid on lipoprotein subclasses in hyperlipidemic children (the EARLY study).
        Am J Cardiol. 2005; 95: 869-871